What Is A Programming Paradigm?

Written by Caitlin Davidson

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Programming Paradigm Defined

A programming paradigm is the classification, style or way of programming. It is an approach to solve problems by using programming languages. Depending on the language, the difficulty of using a  paradigm differs.

There are several programming languages that use paradigms, but to do this, they need to follow a strategy or methodology. Paradigms are not meant to be mutually exclusive; a single program can feature multiple paradigms. Below is an overview of programming languages and their paradigm methodology.

  • Imperative: Programming with an explicit sequence of commands.
  • Declarative: Programming by specifying the result a user wants, instead of how to get it.
  • Structured: Programming with clean control structures.
  • Procedural: Imperative programming with procedure calls.
  • Functional: Programming with function calls that avoid any global state.
  • Function-Level: Programming with no variables at all.
  • Object-Oriented: Programming by defining objects that send messages to each other.
  • Event-Driven: Programming with emitters and listeners of asynchronous actions.
  • Flow-Driven: Programming processes communicating with each other over predefined channels.
  • Logic: Programming by specifying a set of facts and rules. 
  • Constraint: Programming by specifying a set of constraints. 
  • Aspect-Oriented: Programming cross-cutting concerns applied transparently.
  • Reflective: Programming by manipulating the program elements.
  • Array: Programming with powerful array operators.

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